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State Convention.] [May, 18G1. 

Ordered to be Printed. 

Synie & Hall, Printers to the CnnveTition. 


We, the people of the Confederate States, each state actiiiir 
in its sovereign and independent character, in order to form a 
permanent federal government, establish justice, insure domestic 
tranquility and secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and 
our posterity — invoking the favor and guidance of Almightv 
God — do ordain and establish this constitution for the Confed- 
erate States of America. 

Section 1. 

All legislative powers herein delegated shall be vested in a 
Congress of the Confederate States, which shall consist of a 
Senate and House of Representatives. 

Section 2. 

1. The House of Representatives shall be composed of mem 
bers chosen every second year by the people of the several 
states ; and the electors in each state shall be citizens of the 
Confederate States, and have the qualifications requisite fur elec. 
tors of the most numerous branch of the State Legislature ; but 
no person of foreign birth, not a citizen of the Confederate States, 
'^ball be allowed to vote for any officer, civil or political. State 
or Federal. 

'2. No person bliall be a Representative, who shall not have 
attained the age of twenty-five years, and be a citizen of the 
Confederate States, and who shall not, when elected, be an in- 
habitant of that State in which he shall be chosen. 

•;. Representatives and Direct Taxes shall be apportioned 
among the several States, which may be included within this 
Confederacy; according to their respective numbers, which shall 
be determined, by adding to the whole number of free persons, 
including those bound to service for a term of years, and exclu- 
ding Indians not taxed, three-fifths of all slaves. The actual 
enumeration shall be made within three years after the first 
meeting of the Congress of the Confederate States, and within 
every subsequent term of ten years, in such manner as they 
shall, by law, direct. The number of Representatives shall not 
exceed one for every fifty thousand, but each State shall have at 
least one Representative ; and until such enumeration shall be 
made, the State of South Carolina shall be entitled to choose 
six — the State of Georgia ten — the State of Alabama nine — the 
State of Florida two — the State of Mississippi seven — the State 
of Louisiana six, and the State of Texas six. 

4. When vacancies happen in the representation from any 
State, the Executive authority thereof shall issue writs of elec- 
tion to fill such vacancies. 

0. The House of Representatives shall choose their speaker 
and other officers ; and shall have the sole power of impeachment ; 
except that any judicial or other federal officer, resident and acting 
solely within the limits of any State, may be impeached by a 
vote of two-thirds of both branches of the Legislature thereof. 

Section 3. 

1. The Senate of the Confederate States shall be composed 
of two senators from each State, chosen for six years by the 
Legislature thereof, at the regular session next immediately 
preceding the commencement of the term of service ; and each 
senator shall have one vote. 

i'. Immediately after they shall he assembled, in consequence 
of the first election, they shall be divided as equally as may be inco 
three classes. The seats of the senators of the first class shall 
be vacated at the expiration of the second year; of the second- 
class at the expiration of the fourth year ; and of the third class 
at the expiration of the sixth year ; so that one-third may be 
chosen every second year ; and if vacancies happen by resigna- 
tion, or otherwise, during the recess of the Legislature of any 
State, the executive thereof may make temporary appointments 
until the meeting of the Legislature, which shall then fill sucli 

•J. No person siiall be a senator who shall not have attained 
the age of thirty years, and be a citizen of the Confederate 
States ; and who shall not, when elected, be an inhabitant of 
the State for which he shall be chosen. 

4. The Vice-President of the Confederate States shall he 
President of the Senate, but shall have no vote, unless they be 
oijually divided. 

5. The senate shall choose their other officers ; and also a 
President pro tempore in the absence of the Vice Presideut, or 
when he shall exercise the office of President of the Confederate 

6. The senate shall have the sole power to try all impeach-^ 
ments. When sitting for that purpose, they shall be on oath 
or affirmation. When the President of the Confederate States 
is tried, the Chief Justice shall preside ; and no person shall be 
convicted without the concurrence of two-thirds of the members 

7. Judgment in cases of impeachment shall not extend fur- 
ther than to removal from office, and disqualification to hold 
and enjoy any office of honor, trust or profit, under the Confed- 
erate. States ; but the party convicted shall, nevertheless, be 
liable and subject to indictment, tiial, judgment and punisU- 
mcnt according; to law, * 

•^ Section 4. 

1. The times, places and manner of liokling elections for 
Senators and Representatives, shall be prescribed in each State 

■ hy the Legislature thereof, subject to the provisions of this con- 
stitution ; but the Con_i!:ress ma3% at any time, by la^v, make 
or alter such regulations, except as to the times and places of 
ehoosing senators. 

2. The Congress shall assemble at least once in every year : 
and such meeting shall be on the first Monday in December, 
unless they shall, by law, appoint a different day. 

Section r>. 

1. Each House shall be the judge of tlie elections, return.- 
and qualifications of its own members, and a majority of each 
shall constitute a (quorum to do business ; but a smaller num- 
ber may adjourn from day to day, and may be authorized to 
compel the attendance of absent members, in such manner and 
under such penalties as each House may provide. 

2. Each House may determine the rules of its proceedings. 
punish its members for disorderly behavior, au<I, with the con- 
currence of two-thirds of the whole number, expel a member. 

0. Each House shall keep a journal of its proceedings, and 
from time to time, publish the same, excepting such parts 
as may in their judgment require secresy : and the yeas and 
nays of the members of either House, on any question, shall, at 
the desire of one-fifth of those present, be entered on the 

4. Neither House, during the session of Congress, shall, with- 
out the consent of the other, adjourn for more than three days. 
nor to any other place than that in which the two Houses sh;ill 
be sitting. 

Section 6. 

1. The,senator» and representatives shall receive a compen- 
sation for their services, to be ascertained by law, and paid out 
of the treasury of the Confederate States- They shall, in aU 

cases, except treason, felony, and breach of the peace, be priv- 
ileged from arrest during their attendance at the session of their 
respective Houses, and in going to and returning from the same ; 
and for any speech or debate in either House, they shall not be 
(jucstioncd in any other place. 

'2. No senator or representative shall, during the time for 
which he was elected, bo appointed to any civil office under the 
authority of the Confederate States, which shall have been cre- 
ated, or the emoluments whereof shall have been increased 
during such time : and no person holding any office under the 
Oonfoderatc States shall be a member of either House during 
his continuance in office. But Congress may, by law, grant to 
the principal officer in each of the Executive Departments a seat 
upon the floor of either House, with the privilege of discussing 
any measures appertaining to his department. 

Section 7. 

]. All Itills for raisin*:: revenue shall oriijinate in the House of 
Representatives ; but the Senate may propose or concur with 
amendments as on other bills. 

'2 Every bill Avliich shall have passed both Houses, shall, be- 
fore it becomes a law, be presented to the President of the Con- 
federate States ; if he approve, he shall sign it ; but if not, he 
shall return it with his objections to that House in which it shall 
have originated, who shall enter the objections at large on their 
journal, and proceed to reconsider it. If, after such reconsid- 
eration, two-thirds of that House shall agree to pass the bill, it 
shall be sent, together with the objections, to the other House. 
by which it shall likewise be reconsidered, and if approved by 
two-thirds of that House, it shall become a law. But in all 
such cases, the votes of both Houses shall be determined by 
yeas and nays, and the names of the persons voting for and 
against the bill shall be entered on the journal of each House re- 
spectively. If any bill shall not be returned by the President 
within ten days (Sundays excepted) after it shall have been pre- 
sented to him, the same shall be a law, in like manner as if he 


had signed it, unless the Congress, by their adjournment, pre- 
vent its return ; in which case it shall not be a law. The Pre- 
sident may approve any appropriation and disapprove any other 
appropriation in the same bill. In such case he shall, in signing 
the bill, designate the appropriations disapproved ; and shall re- 
turn a copy of such appropriatiens, with his objections, to the 
House in which the bill shall have originated ; and the same 
proceedings shall then be had as in case of other bills disap- 
proved by the President. 

3. Every order, resolution or vote, to which the concurrence 
of both Houses may be necessary, (except on a question of ad- 
journment) shall be presented to the President of the Confede- 
rate States ; and before the same shall take effect, shall be 
approved by him ; or being disapproved by him, shall be re- 
passed by two-thirds of both Houses, according to the rules ^nd 
limitations prescribed in case of a bill. 

Section 8. 

The Congress shall have power — 

1. To lay and collect taxes, duties, imposts, and excises, for 
revenue necessary to pay the debts, provide for the common 
defence, and carry on the government of the Confederate States ; 
but no bounties shall be granted from the treasury ; nor shall 
any .duties or taxes on importations from foreign nations belaid 
to promote or foster any branch of industry ; and all duties, 
imposts, and excises shall be uniform throughout the Confederate 
States : 

2. To borrow money on the credit of the Confederate States : 
b. To regulate commerce with foreign nations, and among 

the several States, and with the Indian tribes ; but neither this, 
nor any other clause contained in the constitution, shall ever be 
construed to delegate the power to Congress to appropriate 
looney for any internal improvement intended to facilitate com- 
merce ; except for the purpose of furnishing lights, beacons, 
and buoys, and other aids to navigation upon the coasts, and 
the improvement of harbors and the removing of obstructions in 

river navigation, in all which cases, such duties shall be laid on 
the navigation facilitated thereby, as may be necessary to pay 
the costs and expenses thereof : 

4. To establish uniform laws of naturalization, and uniform 
laws on the subject of bankruptcies, throughout the Confederate 
States, but no law of Congress shall discharge any debt con- 
tracted before the passage of the same : 

•0. To coin money, regulate the value thereof and of ff»rcign 
coin, and fix the standard of weights and measures : 

6. To provide for the punishment of counterfeiting the secu- 
rities and current coin of the Confederate States : 

7. To establish postoffices and post routes ; but tlie expenses 
of the PostoflRce Department, after the first day of March in the 
year of our Lord eighteen hundred and sixty-three, shall be paid 
out of its own revenues : 

8. To promote the progress of science and useful arts, by 
securing for limited times to authors and inventors the exclusive 
right to their respective writings and discoveries: 

9. To constitute tribunals inferior to the Supreme Court : 

10. To define and punish piracies and felonies committed on 
the high seas, and offences against the law of nations : 

11. To declare war, grant letters of marque and reprisal, and 
make rules concerning captures on land and water : 

12. To raise and support armies ; but no appropriation of 
money to that use shall be for a longer term than' two years : 

13. To provide and maintain a navy: 

14. To make rules for the government and regulation of the 
land and naval forces: 

15. To provide for calling forth the militia to execute the 
laws of the Confederate States, suppress insurrections, and repel 
invasions : 

16. To provide for organizing, arming, and disciplining the 
militia, and for governing such part of them as may be employed 
in the service of the Confederate States ; reserving to the States, 
respectively, the appointment of the officers, and the authority 
of training the militia according to the discipline prescribed by 

• Conffress : 


IT. To exei'cisc exclusive legislation, in all cases whatsoever, 
over such district (not exceeding ten miles square) as may, by 
cession of one or more States and the acceptance of Congress, 
become the scat of the Government of the Confederate States; 
and to exercise like authority over all purchased by the consent 
of the legislature of the State in which the same shall be, for the 
erection efforts, magazines, arsenals, dockyards and other need- 
ful buildings ; and 

18. To make all laws which shall be necessary and proper for car- 
rying into execution the foregoing powers, and all other powers 
vested by this Constitution in the government of the Confeder- 
ate States, or iu any department or officer thereof. 

Section 9. 

1. The importation of negroes of the African race, from any 
foreign country, other than the slaveholding States or Territo- 
ries of the United States of America, is hereby forbidden ; and 
Congress is required to pass such laws as shall eifectually pre- 
vent the same. 

2. Congress shall also have power to prohibit the introduc- 
tion of slaves from any State not a member of, or Territory not 
belonging to, this Confederacy. 

3. The privilege of the writ of habeas corpus shall not be sus- 
pended, unless when in cases of rebellion or invasion the public 
safety may require it. 

4. No bill of attainder, ex post facto law, or law denying or 
impairing the right of property in negro slaves shall be passed. 

o. No capitation or other direct tax shall be laid, unless in 
proportion to the census or enumeration hereinbefore directed 
to be taken. 

6. No tax or duty shall be laid on articles exported from any 
State, except by a vote of two-thirds of both Houses. 

7. No preference shall be given by any regulation of commcr^ 
or revenue to the ports of one State over those of another. 

8. No money shall be drawn from the treasury, but in conse- 
quence of appropriations made by law; and a regular statement. 

aiul account of the receipts and expenditures of all public moa-y 

aliall be published from time to time. 

9. Congress shall appropriate no money from the treasury 

except by a vote of tNvo-thirds of both Houses, taken by yea?^ 

and nays, unless it be asked and estimated for bv some one of 

the heads of Department, and submitted to Concrress by the 

President; or for the purpose of pay inn; its own expenses and 

contnigencies ; or for the payment of claims against the Coi;- 

federate States, the justice of which shall have been judicially 

declared by a tribunal for the investigation of claims against the 

government, which it is hereby ma<lc the duty uf Congress to 

10. All bills appropriating money shall specify in fcderd 
currency the exact amount of each appropriation imd the pur- 
poses for which it is made ; and Congress shall grant no extra 
compensation to any public contractor, officer, agent or servant, 
after such contract shall have been made or such service ren- 

^ 11. No title of nobility shall be granted by the Confederate 
States: and no person holding any office of profit or trust under 
them, shall, without the consent of the Congress, accept of any 
present, emolument, office or title of any kind whatever from 
any king, prince or foreign State. 

12. Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment 
of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridg- 
ing the freedom of speech, or of the press ; or the right of the 
people peaceably to assemble and petition the government for a 
redress of grievances. 

13. A well regulated militia being necessary to the security 
of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear arma 
shall not be infrinsed. 

14. No soldier shall, in time of peace, be quartered in any 
house without the consent of the owner ; nor in time of war 
but in a manner to be prescribed by Uw. 

15. The right of the people to be secure in their persons, 
houses, papers, and effects against unreasonable searches and 


seizures, shall not be violated ; and no warrants shall issue but 
upon probable cause, supported by oath or affirmation, and par- 
ticularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or 
things to be seized. 

16. No person shall be held to answer for a capital or other- 
wise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of 
a grand jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, 
or in the militia, when in actual service, in time of war or pub- 
lic danger ; nor shall any person be subject for the same offence 
to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb ; nor to be compelled, 
in any criminal case, to be a witness against himself ; nor be 
deprived bf life, liberty, or property, without due process of 
law ; nor shall private property be taken for public use, without 
just compensation. 

17. In all criminal prosecutions the accused shall enjoy the 
right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the 
State and district wherein the crime shall have been committed, 
which district shall have been previously ascertained by law, 
and to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation ; 
to be confronted with the witnesses against him ; to have com- 
pulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor ; and to 
hgive the assistance of counsel for his defence. 

18. In suits at common law, where the value in controversy 
shall exceed twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be 
preserved ; and no fact so tried by a jury shall be otherwise re- 
examined in any court of the Confederacy, than according to 
the rules of the common law. 

19. Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines 
imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted. 

20. Every law or resolution having the force of law, shall 
relate but to one subject, and that shall be expressed in the title. 

Section 10. 

1. No State shall enter into any treaty, alliance, or confede- 
ration ; grant letters of marque and reprisal ; coin money ; make 
anything but gold^and silver coin a tender inj)ayment of debts; 


pass any bill of attainder, or ex post facto law, or law impairing 
the obligp.tion of contracts ; or grant any title of nobility. 

2. No state shall, without the consent of the Congress, lay 
any imposts or duties on imports or exports, except what may 
be absolutely necessary for executing its inspection laws ; and 
the net produce of all duties and imposts, laid by any State 
on imports or exports, shall be for the use of the treasury of 
the Confederate States ; and all such laws shall be subject to 
the revision and control of Congress. 

3. No State shall, without the consent of Congress, lay any 
duty on tonnage, except on sea-going vessels, for the improve- 
ment of its rivers and harbors navigated by the said vessels : but 
such duties shall not conflict with any treaties of the Confederate 
States with foreign nations ; and any surplus revenue, thus de- 
rived, after making such improvement, be paid into the common 
treasury. Nor shall any state keep troops or ships of war in 
time of peace, enter into any agrement or compact with anoth- 
er state, or with a foreign power, or engage in war, unless ac- 
tually invaded, or m such imminent danger as will not admit of 
delay. But when any river divides or flows through two or 
more States, they may enter into compacts with each other to 
improve the navigation thereof. 

Section 1. 

1. The executive power shall be vested in a President of the 
Confederate States of America. He and the Vice President 
shall hold their ofiices for the term of six years ; but the Presi- 
dent shall not be re-elegible. The President and Vice President 
shall be elected as follows : 

2. Each State shall appoint, in such manner as the legislature 
tli^reof may direct, a number of electors equal to the Avhole 
number of Senators and Representatives to which the State may 
be entitled in the Congress; but no Senator or Representative. 


or person holding an office of trust or profit under the Confede- 
erate States, shall be appointed an elector. 

o. The electors shall meet in their respective States and vote 
by ballot for President and Vice President, one of whom, ot 
least, shall not be an inhabitant of the same State with thero- 
selves ; they shall name in their ballots the person voted for ar-s 
President, and in distinct ballots the person voted for as Vice 
President, and they shall make distinct listc of all persons 
voted for as President, and of all persons voted for as Vice 
President, and of the number of votes for each, which lists they 
shall sign and certify, and transmit, sealed, to the seat of the 
government of the Confederate States, directed to the President 
of the Senate ; the Presitlent of the Senate shall, in the presence, 
of the Senate and House of Representatives, open all the certif- 
icates, and the votes shall then be counted ; the person having 
the greatest numberof votes for President shall be the President, 
if such number be a majority of the whole number of electors 
appointed ; and if no person have such majority, then, from the 
persons liaving the highest numbers, not exceeding three, on the 
list of those voted for as President, the House of Representatives 
shall choose immediately, by ballot, the President. But in 
-choosing the Presidert, the votes shall be taken by States, the 
representation from each State having one vote; a quorum for 
this purpose shall consist of a member or members from two- 
thirds of the States, and a majority of all the States .shall be 
necessary to a choice. And if the House of Representatives 
shall not choose a President, whenever the right of choice shall 
devolve upon them, before the fourth day of March next follow- 
ing, then the Vice President shall act as President, as in case 
of the death, or other constitutional disability of the President. 

4. The person having the greatest number of votes as Vice- 
President, shall be the Vice-President, if such number be a ma- 
jority of the whole number of electors appointed; and if no 
person have a majority, then,from the two highest numbers on 
the list the Senate shall choose the Vice-President ; a quorum 
for the purpose shall consist of two-thirds of the whole number 


of Senators, and a majority of tlio ^Yhole number shall be neces- 
sary to a choice. 

5. But no person constitutionally ineligible to the office of 
President shall be eligible to that of Vice-President of the Con- 
federate States. 

0. The Congress may determine the time of choosing the elec- 
tors, and the day on which they shall give their votes : Avhich 
day shall be the same throughout the Confederate States. 

7. No person except a natural-born citizen of the Confeder- 
ate States, or a citizen thereof at the time of the adoption of 
this Constitution, or a citizen thereof born in the United States 
prior to the 20th of December, 1800, shall be eligible to the 
office of President : neither shall any person be eligible to that 
office who shall not have attained the age of thirty-five years, 
and been fourteen years a resident within the limits of the Con- 
federate States, as they may exist at the time of his election. 

8. In case of the removal of the President from office, or of 
his death, resignation, or inability to discharge the powers and 
duties of the said office, the same shall devolve on the Vice- 
President ; and the Congress may, by law, provide for the case 
of removal, death, resignation, or inability both of the Presi- 
dent and A'ice-President, declaring what officer shall then act 
as President, and such officer .shall act accordingly until the dis. 
ability be removed or a President shall be elected. 

9. The President shall, at stated times, receive for his services 
a compensation, which shall neither be increased nor diminish- 
ed during the period for which he shall have been elected : and 
he shall not receive within that period any other emolument 
from the Confederate States, or any of them. 

10. Before he enters on the execution of his office, he shall 
take the following oath or affirmation : 

" I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully execute 
the office of the President of Confederate States, and will 
to the best of my ability, preserve, protect, and defend the con- 
stitution thereof." 


Section 2. 

1. The President shall be commander-in-chief of the army 
and navy of Confederate States, and of thQ militia of the 
several States, when called into the actual service of the Con- 
federate States ; he may require the opinion, in writing, of the 
principal oflficer in each of the Executive Departments, upon any 
subject relating to the duties of their respective offices : and he 
shall have power to grant reprieves and pardons for offences 
against the Confederate States, except in cases of impeachment. 

2. He chall have power, by and with the advice and consent 
of the Senate, to make treaties, provided two-thirds of the Sen- 
ators present concur ; and he shall nominate, and by and with 
the advice and consent of the Senate, shall appoint ambassadors, 
other public ministers and consuls. Judges of the Supreme Court, 
and all other officers of the Confederate States, whose appoint- 
ments are not herein otherwise provided for, and which shall be 
established by law ; but the Congress may, by law, vest the ap- 
pointment of such inferior officers, as they think proper, in the 
President alone, in the courts of law or in the heads of Depart- 

o. The principal officer in each of the Executive Departments, 
and all persons connected with the diplomatic service, may be 
removed from office at the pleasure of the President. All other 
civil officers of the Executive Department may be removed at 
any time by the President, or other appointing power, when 
their services are unnecessary, or for dishonesty, incapacity, in- 
efficiency, misconduct, or neglect of duty ; and when so remov- 
ed, the removal shall be reported to the Senate, together with 
the reasons therefor. 

4. The President shall have power to fill all vacancies tho.t 
may happen during the recess of the Senate, by granting com- 
missions which shall expire at the end of their next session ; but 
no person rejected by the Senate shall be re-appointed to the 
same office during their ensuing recess. 


Section 3. 

1. The President shall, from time to time, give to the Con- 
gress information of the state of the Confederacy, and recom- 
mend to their consideration such measures as he shall judge 
necessary and expedient ; he may, on extraordinary occasions, 
convene both Houses, or either of them ; and in case of disa- 
greement between them, with respect to the time of adjourn- 
ment, he may adjourn them to such time as he shall think pro- 
per ; he shall receive ambassadors and other public ministers ; 
he shall take care that the laws be faithfully executed, and shall 
commission all the officers of the Confederate States. 

Section 4. 

1. The President, Vice President, and all civil officers of the 
Confederate States, shall be removed from office on impeach- 
ment for, and conviction of, treason, bribery, or other high 
crimes and misdemeanors. 


Section 1. 

1. The judicial power of the Confederate States shall be vest- 
ed in one Supreme Court, and in such Inferior Courts as the 
Congress may from time to time ordain and establish. The 
judges, both of the Supreme and Inferior Courts, shall hold 
their offices during good behavior, and shall, at stated times, re- 
ceive for their services a compensation, which shall not be di- 
minished during their continuance in office. 

Section 2. 

1. The judicial power shall extend to all cases arising under 
this Constitution, the laws of the Confederate States, and 
treaties made or which shall be made under their authority : to 
all cases affecting ambassadors, other public ministers and con- 
suls ; to all cases of admiralty and maritime jurisdiction ; to 
controversies to which the Confederate States shall be a party ; 
to controversies between two or more states ; between a state 


and citizen of another state Avhere the state is plaintiff : between 
citizens claiming lands under grants of different states ; and be- 
tween a state or the citizens thereof, and foreign states, citizens 
or subjects ; but no state shall be sued by a citizen or subject of 
:iny foieign state. 

2. In all cases affecting ambassadors, other public ministers, 
and consuls, and those in Avhich a state shall be a party, the su- 
preme court shall have original jurisdiction. In all the other 
eases before mentioned, the supreme court shall have appellate 
jurisdiction, both as to law and fact, with such exceptions, and 
under such regulations, as the Congress shall make. 

0. The trial of all crimes, except in cases of impeachment, 
shall be by jury, and such trial shall be held in the state where 
the said crimes shall have been committed ; but when not com- 
mitted within any state, the trial shall be at such place or places 
as the Congress may by law have directed. 

Section 3. 

1. Treason against the Confederate States shall consist only 
in, levying war against them, or in adhering to their enemies, 
giving them aid and comfort. No person shall be convicted of 
treason unless on the testimony of two witnesses to the same 
overt act or on confession in open court. 

2. The Congress shall have j)Ower to declare the punishment 
of treason, but no attainder of treason shall work corruption of 
blood, or forfeiture, except during the life of the person at- 



1. Full faith and credit ^shall be given in each state to the 
public acts, records and judicial proceedings of every other state. 
And the Congress may, by general laws, prescribe the manner 
in which such acts, records and proceedings shall be proved, 
and the effect thereof. 



Section 2. 

1. The citizens of each State shall be entitled to all tht']»nv- 
Hcges aiul immunities of citizens in the several States, and 
ehall have the right of transit and sojourn in any state of this Con- 
federacy, with their slaves and other property ; ;ind the ri^ht of 
property in said slaves shall not he thereby impaired. 

2. A person charged in any state with treason, felony, or 
other crime against the laws of such state, who shall flee from 
justice, and he found in another state, shall, on demand of the 
Executive authority of the state from which he Hed, be delivered 
up, to be removed to the state having jurisdiction of the crime. 

•>. No slave or other person held to service or labor in any 
state or territory of the Confederate States under the laws thereof, 
escaping or lawfully carried into another, shall, in consequence 
of any law or regulation therein, be discharged from such ser- 
vice or labor; luit shall be delivered up on claim of the party 
to whom such slave belongs, or t-i wliom such service or Inhor 
may be due. 

Sectiu-N '■'>. 

1. Oiher states may be admitted into this Oonlederacy by a 
vote of two-thirds of the whole House of Representatives, and 
two-thirds of the Senate, the Senate voting by states ; but no 
new state shall be formed or oroctetl within the jurisdiction of 
any other state: nor any >tate be formctl )>y the jiuiction of 
two or more states, or parts of states, wiilioiu the consent of the 
Lcijislatures of the states concerned as well as of tlu^ Oouiiress. 

'2. The Congress shall have power to dispose of and make 
all needful rules and regulations courcrning the )iropovty of the 
Confederate States, including the laiuls thereof. 

o. The Confederate States may acquire new territory: ami 
Congress shall have power to legislate and provide goverimuMU- 
for the inhabitants of all to'ritory belonging to the Confederate 
States, lying without the limits of the several states; and may 
permit them, at such times, and in such manner as it may hy 
law provide-, to form states to be Mclinittoil Into the Confe<leraey. 


In all such territory, the institution of negro slavery as it novf 
exists in the Confederate States, shall be recognized and protected 
l)y Congress, and by the territorial government : and the inhabit- 
ants of the several Confederate States and Teritories, shall have 
the riglit to take to such territory any slaves lawfully held by them 
in'any of the states or territories of the Confederate States. 

4. The Confederate States shall guaranty to every state 
that now is or hereafter may become a member of this Confed- 
eracy, a republican form of government, and shall protect each 
of them against invasion; and on application of the Legislature 
(oj- of the Executive when the Legislature is not in sessioa) 
against domestic violence. 


Section 1. 

1. Upon the demand of any three states, legally assembl-'iJ 
in their several conventions, the Congress shall summon a con- 
vention of all the states, to take into consideration such amend- 
ments to the constitution as the said states shall concur in sug- 
gesting at the time when the said demand is made ; and should 
any of the proposed amendments to the Constitution be agree-?, 
on by the said convention — voting by states — and the same be 
ratified by the legislatures of two-thirds of the several states, oi- 
by conventions in two-thirds thereof — as the one or the other mode 
of ratification may be proposed by the general convention — 
they shall from thenceforward form a part of this constitution. 
But no state shall, Avithout its consent, be deprived of its equal 
representation in the Senate. 


1. Tho Government established by tliis constitution is the 
successor of the Provisional Government of the Confederate 
States of America, and all the laws passed by the latter shall 
continue in force until the same shall be repealed or modified ; 
and all the officers appointed by the same shall remain in office 


?uiitil their, successors are appointed ;:nd (junlified, or the offic(?n 

2. All debts contracted and eni'a^'einents entered into before 
the ailoption of this conatitution shall be as valid against the 
Confederate States under this constitution as under the Provis- 
ional Government. 

3. This Constitution, and the laws of the Confederate States, 
made in pursuance thereof, and all treaties made, or which shall 
be made under the authority of the Confederate States, shall be 
the supreme law of the land; and the judges in every state 
shall be bound thereby, anything in the constitution or laws of 
any state to the contrary notwithstanding. 

4. The Senators and Representatives Itefore mentioned, an.i 
tlie members of the several state legislatures, and all executive 
and judicial officers, both of the Confederate States, and of the 
several states, shall be bound by oath or affirmation, to support 
this Constitution ; but no religious test shall ever be required as 
a (jualitieation to any office or public trust under the Confed- 
erate States. 

•J. The enumeration, in the Constitution, of certain rights, 
shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by 
the people df the several states. 

^t. The powers not delegated to the Confederate States by 
the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the states, are reserved 
to the states, respectively, or to the people thereof. 


1. The ratification of the conventions of five states shall be 
sufficient for the establishment of this Constitution between the 
states 60 ratifying the same. 

2. When five states shall have ratified this Constitution, in 
the manner before specified, the Congress under the Provisional 
Cons:;:ation, shall prescribe the time for holding the election of" 
President and Vice-President ; and, for the meeting of the Elec- 
toral Colltgc; and, for counting the votes, and inaugurating the 
President. They r^hall, also, prescribe the time for boding the 


firBt election lor mumbo's ot" (Jougress under this Constitution., 
und the time for assembling the same. Until the assembling of 
s'jtch Congress, the Congress under the Provisional Constitution 
yball continue to exerci,se the legislative powers granted them : 
not extending beyond the time limited ])y the Constitution of 
tL<- Provi*=ional (JovoniUKiU. 


Congress, March 11, IbtJl. 

On ihc ^j[ue.-lioR i>l' the adoption of the Constitution of the 
Confederate States of America, the vote was taken by yeas and 
tiays; Mud the Constitution was unanimously adopted, as fol- 
lows : 

Those who Vdti'd in the atilrniative being Messrs. AValker, 
Smith, Curry, Hale, MePiae, Shorter and Fearn, of Alabama ; 
(Messrs. Clinton and Lewis being absent); Messrs. Morton, An- 
derpon and Owens, of Florida. : Messrs. Toombs, Howell Cobb. 
Bartow, Nisbct, Hill, Wright, Thomas R. R. Cobb, and Ste- 
phens, of Oeorgia, (Messrs; Crawford and Kenan being absent); 
^lessrs. Perkins, de Clouet, Conrad, Kenner, Sparrow, and Mar- 
>hall, of Louisiana ; Messrs. Harris, Brooke, Wilson, Clayton, 
JJarry and Harrison, of Mississippi, (Mr. Campbell being ab- 
sent) ; Messrs. Rhctt, Barnwell, iveitt, Chesnut, Meinminger, 
Miles, Withers and Boyce. of South Carolina ;. Messrs. Reagan, 
Hemphill, Waul, (xregg. <.>ldham and Ochiltree, of Texas. (Mr. 
Wigfall being abvcnt.) 

A lriH> (.-.•py: .J. J. HOOPER. 

Secretary of tlic CouLn-esi.. 

Congress, March, 11, 1801. 
ii do hereby <.-ej-tify that the foregoing are, respectively, true- 
ar>d correct copies of "■ The Constitution of the Confederate 
tStates of America," unanimously adopted this day, and of the 
ycAn and nays, on the nuestion of the adoption thereof. 

Presidewt of the Concrress.-